Private Railroad Travel in the United States

Private-Railroad-Travel-United-States
Although trains can sometimes be seen as a more antiquated form of travel, the fact is that millions of Americans ride the rails every year. Amtrak, the largest railroad company in the country, estimates that roughly 87,000 people use their trains daily.

However, while most Americans are used to sitting next to strangers and dealing with cramped luggage compartments, a select few get to ride a more dignified way – by private railcar. In this article, we’re going to discuss the ins and outs of personal railroad travel in the United States. If you’ve ever dreamed of having complete privacy on a train, these cars are unlike anything you’ve experienced before. Continue reading

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Are Most Writers Introverts?


Writing is a craft that shapes most of our society. Writers create the content that fills websites, blogs, newspapers and magazines. Their words keep us informed about what is going on around us, and more often than not, they introduce us to new topics we have never heard about. They write novels that take us to other worlds and they write nonfiction that teaches us about what is real.

Writers have a real gift. The way they think is different. They are constantly creating and must spend hours and hours researching and editing. While it has not been proven in a scientific study, most writers seem to be introverts. They enjoy connecting with the written word, which can be less draining and stressful than having an in-person interaction. Continue reading

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U.S. War Plan Black

US-War-Plan-BlackIn the world of historical fiction, one subset that has always been popular is the “what if” scenario. Wars are an intriguing starting point for these stories, as it can be fun to go down the rabbit hole of alternate endings. What if Germany won World War II? What if the U.S. ceded the South to the Confederacy? What if the South had won at Gettysburg?

Beyond the big questions, we have a slew of smaller “what if” conflicts, thanks to now-defunct drafts of war plans. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, many of the European powers, as well as America, developed plans in case of an attack by various nations or empires. While we could spend countless hours diving into the different plans drawn up, today we’re going to discuss one in particular: war plan Black. Continue reading

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U.S. War Plan Orange

US-War-Plan-OrangeWar Plan Orange was part of a series of color-coordinated contingency plans. War Plan Orange was specifically outlined by the United States in preparation for fighting a war against Japan alone. Though this plan was first outlined in 1919, it actually served as a template that the United States forces would use during World War II.

Plan Orange formed the foundation for the actual campaign against Japan in World War II and included a pre-war economic blockade of Japan that the U.S. imposed and the plans for interning the Japanese-American population living in the mainland U.S.

 

Before the U.S. Color Coded War Plans

Early on in our history, the U.S. had prepared plans to deal with a plethora of potential global adversaries. The early war planning agencies were the U.S. Army Academy (West Point) and the U.S. Naval Academy as well. They served as some of the primary war colleges from 1890-1939. It was actually in 1903 that the Joint Army and Navy Board was created to help facilitate better arrangements for the two services working together, on a united front. Continue reading

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Opposition to US Involvement in World War II Prior to Pearl Harbor – Part 2 of 2

Opposition to US Involvement in World War II, Pacifists, Mohandas K. Gandhi’s, Socialism and the War, Joseph Stalin, Communism

Though few think of what World War II would have been like without the US’s role in the war, there was a time when the US was in consideration over whether or not they would get involved. The truth is that before the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7th, 1941, the American leaders and forces were conflicted over whether they should jump in or if they would be better off staying out of it.

Even with the war expanding into parts of Asia and Europe during the late ’30s and early ’40s, there wasn’t a clear consensus on what the US would decide to do until they were attacked by Japan.

In fact, there were so many factions and groups that were partially or completely opposed to participating in the war at all, both inside and outside of the US. Making the decision to jump into the war was not taken lightly by any of the countries and nations that were either directly or indirectly impacted by World War II. Continue reading

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No War: How the Public Opposed U.S. Intervention in WW2 – Part 1 of 2

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These days, it’s hard to imagine a time when the United States didn’t want to participate in World War 2. Considering how much time, effort, money, and blood we invested in the war, one might assume that we were always ready for a fight.

However, if it weren’t for the bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese in 1941, the U.S. may not have entered the conflict, at least, not until later. While Roosevelt understood the need for American intervention in Europe and Asia, the general public was mostly opposed to fighting someone else’s war.

In this two-part series, we want to look at some of the reasons for this anti-war sentiment pre-Pearl Harbor. While there were many different variables, the primary sources of opposition were: Continue reading

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The Anti-Comintern Pact of WWII

When talking about World War II, most people know about the conflict as the Allies versus the Axis powers. However, there were a lot of different and competing allegiances both before and during the war, all of which had some level of impact on the outcome. One of the most intriguing was the Anti-Comintern Pact of 1936. Although this Pact didn’t alter the course of the war as significantly as others, it does illustrate how complicated things can be during times of conflict.

So, with that in mind, we want to take a closer look at the Anti-Comintern Pact. Who was part of it, what it outlined, and what it meant for the war overall.

 

Anti-Communist Sentiment Pre-WWII

During Hitler’s rise to power, he had a fairly extensive list of enemies. One of them was the communists, most notably the USSR. Hitler and the Nazi party were vehemently anti-soviet and believed that bolshevism would corrupt the world as much as Judaism and other beliefs.

In the mid-30s, Joseph Goebbels, Hitler’s minister of propaganda, developed the General Association of German Anti-Communist Federations, or GDAV, as it was known in Germany. The primary goal of the group was to spread anti-soviet messaging both inside and outside of Germany to bolster support for the Nazi party.

When the Spanish civil war broke out in 1936, the GDAV focused a lot of its propaganda there, particularly because the Nazis were allied with Franco’s fascist party. On the opposing side was the USSR, who supported the Republicans. The Germans felt that a formal treaty with other nations could help stem the tide of soviet aggression.

On the Japanese side, they also viewed the Soviet Union as a primary antagonist. Since the USSR was expanding its operations in the region, and considering that the two countries practically shared a border, tensions were high before the Anti-Comintern Pact was signed.

Another element that caused conflict between Japan and the Soviets was Japan’s invasion of Manchuria and China in the early 30s. Since Imperial Japan was extending its power and influence in the region, the Soviets knew that they would eventually come to a head. Further complicating matters was the relationship between communists in Russia and those in China.

Initially, Germany had hoped to ally with China and Japan against the USSR, since Sino-German relations were good. The Chinese bought armaments from the German military, and the Germans received valuable resources, such as tin and tungsten. However, because of the conflict between China and Japan, Germany would have to pick one over the other. Eventually, since the Japanese military was a more potent ally, Hitler went with them.

 

The Seventh World Congress of the Comintern

In 1935, communists around the world came together for the Seventh World Congress, held in Moscow. There, communist leaders recognized that they were heading into significant conflict with both Western and Japanese powers. Before the Congress, the Soviet treatment of Western democracies was one of mutual benefit. However, seeing that Germany and Japan were actively becoming more aggressive, leaders believed that it was better to secure alliances with left-leaning countries, such as Great Britain.

During the Congress, communist leadership called out Japan and Germany as aggressors and potential threats to the USSR and its interests. Because of this Congress, Germany realized that it needed to form an anti-communist alliance as soon as possible.

 

German Alliances With the USSR and Great Britain

One of Hitler’s strategies to consolidate his power was to work with people right up until the point he betrayed them. It worked wonders in Germany, as the “night of long knives” allowed Hitler to dispose of his enemies swiftly.

Abroad, he used the same tactic with Great Britain and the Soviets. However, his long-term goals were always to push back against Soviet aggression and remove the Bolsheviks once and for all.

With Great Britain, Hitler signed the Anglo-German Naval Agreement in 1935. This agreement came as a shock to Japan, which saw the treaty as a threat to the German-Japanese alliance. However, Hitler’s primary reason for aligning with Britain was to weaken his European enemies (i.e., France) and to help contain the USSR. At the time, he felt that an alliance between the Western powers was far more valuable to removing the Soviet threat.

With Russia, Hitler and Stalin agreed to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, which was itself something of an extension of the Treaty of Berlin. Since 1922, Germany and Russia had agreed to a pact of nonaggression. Neither country would ally or aide an enemy of the other.

The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was named after German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and Soviet diplomat Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov. This agreement went into effect in 1939 and stipulated how the two powers would carve up Eastern Europe, specifically the countries of Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Finland.

The idea behind this Pact was that Hitler wanted to share a border with the USSR. Then, it would be much easier for him to invade, since he wouldn’t have to move through intermediary countries first. Although the Pact made it seem like German aggression toward Russia would cease, the plan was always to invade and wipe out the Soviets.

In both cases, Germany sent secret messages to Japan to let them know of their ultimate plans, thus securing the German-Japanese alliance.

 

What Did the Anti-Comintern Pact Do?

On the German side, Ribbentrop was the primary architect of the Pact. On the Japanese side was Hiroshi Oshima, the ambassador to Germany from 1938-39 and 1941-45. Both men vehemently hated communism and the Soviets, and they made sure that the Pact assured mutual assistance if the Soviets were to attack either country.

There was plenty of back and forth about what to include within the Pact, but in the end, it covered a few key protocols.

First, both countries were to share information about communist dealings, specifically those related to the USSR (although the country was not named publicly). The Pact was careful to omit any details regarding military strikes or advancement so as not to create diplomatic tensions with the Russians.

Second, should the Soviets attack either country, the other would agree to step in and offer assistance as needed. Originally, it’s believed that the first draft of the Pact, as signed by Hitler, had a more offensive stance, but the Japanese were worried about having to back Germany if they launched an invasion. The way it was written in the final draft, the Pact was meant as a defensive measure only.

Finally, there was a secret protocol added to the treaty, which named the USSR directly and outlined Germany’s and Japan’s informational and militaristic alliance. Based on the language of the secret protocol, it was apparent that the Pact was designed as a measure against Russia specifically, not communism in general.

 

What Was the Anti-Comintern Pact’s Impact on the War?

For the most part, the Pact signaled that Germany and Japan were officially allied with each other. The Chinese were largely upset, since – at the time – they were still receiving German aid to help fight off the Japanese. That aid ceased in 1937 when Japan invaded China.

For Europe, the Pact was seen as an act of aggression toward Eastern European countries like Czechoslovakia and Poland. When Italy signed the agreement in 1937, that further cemented the divide between the Allies and the Axis powers.

In Germany, the Pact was part of a pro-Japanese propaganda movement by the Nazi party. Since most Germans were pro-Chinese, the Nazis had to work hard to sell the idea of an alliance with Japan. Over time, Hitler wanted to strengthen the bond between the two countries, particularly for cooperation after the war.

In Japan, the Pact wasn’t widely celebrated, but it did create some tension between the Imperial Japanese Army (who supported the Pact) and the Imperial Japanese Navy (who weren’t supportive). According to the Navy, the more significant threat in the region was the US and Great Britain, so allying with Germany effectively made cooperation with the US and UK impossible.

For the Soviets, the Pact was a clear act of encirclement between Japan and Germany. They also saw through the public version and realized that there must be a secret military alliance between the two countries against the USSR. Essentially, the Pact made the Soviets more paranoid and encouraged them to ramp up their armament in case of conflict.

Overall, once the Pact became public, it signified a shift in allegiances, which made a lot of countries nervous. Italy’s entrance to the agreement in 1937 only made matters worse and put Europe and Russia on edge. Had Germany and Japan not gone public with their treaty, it could have bought them some time to strategize their plans for the war. As it was, they played their hand and would let the chips fall where they may.


 

Resources:

https://www.britannica.com/event/Anti-Comintern-Pact

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-Comintern_Pact

 

Posted in America, Anti-Comintern Pact, China, Germany, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom, United States, World War II, WWII | Leave a comment

Post-War Plans for the World War II Axis Powers

When talking about historical fiction, one of the most popular “what-if” scenarios involves what would happen if the Axis powers had won World War II. As improbable as it may seem today, the countries of Germany, Italy, and Japan had huge ambitions that could have led to a restructuring of the world as we know it.

So, with that in mind, we want to take a closer look at the proposed ideas and plans that the Axis powers developed in the early stages of the war. To make it easier, we will be looking at them based on the country, starting with the least-capable of the three: Italy.

 

Italy – A Roman Renaissance

When you look at Italy’s involvement in World War II, one could assume that they would have been better off sitting the whole conflict out. Although fascist leader Benito Mussolini had grand visions of a new Roman empire, his soldiers and regime were ill-equipped to make it a reality. No matter where they went, the Italians suffered casualties and defeat. Whether it was Ethiopia, France, or Greece, Mussolini couldn’t seem to get his act together.

Still, had Italy whipped its soldiers into shape or had Germany prevailed, the general idea was for the country to reclaim colonies it lost in World War I, as well as expand into ancient Roman territories. The Mediterranean was particularly attractive, which is why Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935, Albania in 1939, and the Horn of Africa and Greece in 1940. Unfortunately, in each circumstance, the Italian army suffered massive losses. By 1940, Germany had to come to Mussolini’s aid to prevent the Allies from gaining a foothold in Europe and cutting the German Reich through the middle.

Overall, Italian plans for a new Roman empire were nothing more than a pipe dream. A huge issue for Mussolini was that he failed to inspire his countrymen to share the same vision. While his party was in charge, the average Italian citizen was not eager for war, especially having suffered during the last one.

 

Japan – A Pro-Eastern Coalition

Japan’s territorial expansion began long before World War II broke out. In fact, they were making inroads toward a new Japanese empire before the first World War, with conflicts in Taiwan in 1895 and Korea in 1910.

One of the reasons for this expansion was the desire for Japanese influence to dominate the region. Western powers had long been trying to control the Far East. The French had Indochina (Vietnam), the British had Singapore, Hong Kong, and India, and the United States was also starting to acquire islands – namely the Philippines and Hawaii. Japan sought to eradicate Western forces from these countries, replacing them in the process.

The plan was called the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, and it included all nations within Southeast Asia, going as far west as India and parts of Russia, and as far south as Australia. Had Japan succeeded in the war, this sphere might have expanded further to include the United States.

China and India were particularly attractive to the Japanese, as they established colonies in both countries. In 1942, Japan sent an ambassador to Germany to discuss the division of Southeast Asia. The two countries agreed on a border that crossed through China, Russia, India, and Afghanistan. Germany would control the western portion of India, while Japan controlled the east, including Pakistan.

Interestingly, by dividing the country so neatly, it created problems for the Axis powers. Neither one wanted to cede territory to the other, so the border was well-maintained by both sides. Japanese forces were victorious in driving the British back in India but were unable to maintain momentum for fear of crossing into German-held territory. Since Germany was occupied with other conflicts, they weren’t able to continue Japan’s aggression, which meant that neither side could gain a strong foothold in India.

As with Germany, Japan’s grander scheme seemed to place itself at the top of a global hierarchy. Other nations within the Co-Prosperity Sphere would feed into Japanese industry, acting as de facto colonies for the greater Imperial Japanese Empire. In return, these countries could shed Western influence for good. Overall, it seemed that the Japanese believed Eastern and Western cultures were too dissonant for a long-lasting cooperation.

 

Germany – Total World Domination

When talking about post-war plans, no one dreamt bigger or had grander visions than Adolf Hitler himself. Based on the projects we know about, his ultimate goal was world peace – with Germany as its leader. However, to reach such lofty heights, he would have to do it in stages. The overarching strategy he developed was called the New Order (neordnung).

First, there was Lebensraum (living space), as described in his manifesto, Mein Kampf. Germany, being the second-most populous country in Europe, needed more space for its citizens to grow and thrive. This philosophy would drive the annexation of Austria and the Czech Republic in 1938, as well as the invasion of Poland in 1939.

However, the Polish invasion was also necessary for Germany to establish a border with Russia. Since Hitler had long-term plans to invade and destroy the Slavic nation, he wanted to set up an easy path to Moscow first.

Germany’s expansion to the west, including invasions of Luxembourg, Belgium, and France, was another part of the Lebensraum plan. Denmark and Norway were also annexed, particularly because of Hitler’s affinity for the Nordic people. He believed that Nordic and Aryan races were superior to all others, so they should sit at the head of the table, with everyone else making room for them.

The eventual plan was to create a Greater German Reich, which would occupy most of Europe, except Great Britain, Spain, Italy (for obvious reasons), and the Middle East. The Reich would consist of ancient Germanic territories, and each colony would be indoctrinated as quickly as possible.

After Lebensraum, the next phase was more racially motivated. Hitler wanted German men to sow their seed as far and wide as possible, and German women to have as many children as possible. This policy would be known as Lebensborn (fountain of life) and was carried out in many annexed countries, mostly Denmark and Norway. The idea was that Germany needed to increase its population to fill in these newly conquered territories and to promote the country’s hegemony (racial dominance).

To help bolster this cause, the German high command created the Gold Honor Cross of the German Mother, which was awarded to any woman who had at least eight babies for the Reich. Also, the law was rewritten so that men could marry additional wives as necessary. According to Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS and the Lebensborn program, he envisioned a global German population of 300 million by the year 2000.

Another method of ensuring Germany’s dominance was the resettlement of Germans to new colonies. By 1942, almost 630,000 Germans had been moved to parts of Poland and France, with plans for another 390,000 in the following years.

As far as an invasion strategy went, Hitler saw Russia as the biggest threat to his plan of world domination. Thus, he developed Operation Barbarossa, which started in June of 1941. In his mind, Russia was such a backward country that the invasion would be swift and decisive. Once the Slavs were defeated, he could continue his Lebensraum and Lebensborn programs unabated. Since the rest of the Allies were nowhere to be found, it would be years before he had to move on to the next stage.

Had Russia fallen as quickly as Hitler envisioned, he had plans for every other part of the globe. Here are some highlights of his vision for a thousand-year Reich.

 

Africa

Northern African countries would go to Italy, while Germany would reclaim pre-WW1 colonies in the central part of the continent. This conquest would include modern-day countries like the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Sudan, Zambia, Angola, and Botswana. South Africa would remain mostly independent.

 

Middle East

Hitler had no real plans for the Middle East, instead leaving it for Mussolini and the Italians. However, he did strike a deal with Turkey, thanks to its anti-Russian ideology and strategic location. Hitler would allow the Turks to expand throughout the region as they saw fit, and they would be close allies. Turks even got equal status as Germans.

 

North America

For the most part, Hitler’s plans focused on Europe and Russia, not the United States. Sending troops across the Atlantic would be too costly, and an invasion of North America would only be possible once Europe and Africa were colonized. In his mind, the eventual battle between Germany and the US would happen decades later, in a sort of Eastern vs. Western hemisphere conflict. Unfortunately, Britain didn’t surrender in 1940, and Japan attacked the US in 1941, so Hitler was forced to tangle with US forces much sooner than he wanted.

 

Asia

When talking about a long-term strategy for global domination, Hitler knew that he would have to bump up against his Japanese allies. Overall, the plan was for Lebensborn to help the Germanic people establish dominance over Asian countries over many years and decades. At some point in the future, a German-led coalition of European and Russian forces would have to invade Asia to establish ultimate supremacy. As with North America, however, Hitler would likely not be around to witness it.

 


Resources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Areas_annexed_by_Nazi_Germany

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Order_(Nazism)

https://www.quora.com/What-were-Japan%E2%80%99s-post-war-plans-assuming-they-had-won-the-war

https://dailyhistory.org/What_were_the_goals_of_the_Axis_powers_and_the_Soviet_Union_during_World_War_Two%3F

 

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Post-War Plan of the World War II Allied Powers

Post-War Plan of the World War II Allied Powers

After one of the most devastating and costly wars that the world has ever seen, the Allied Powers set out to accomplish specific goals after the war. These included bringing justice to Germany and the power of the Axis, along with necessary reparations that would restore balance to the globe, after the war.

For the war crimes that Germany had committed and the massive cost that they imposed on the allies in terms of both life and the cost of the war imposed on each nation that participated.

 

Conferences After World War II

The Potsdam Conference was held after the war from July through August of 1945. The US’s goal in the conference was to implement the Morgenthau Plan, developed by Henry Morgenthau Jr., who was the United States Secretary of the Treasury at the time.

During this famed conference is when the United States made the elective decision to dismantle the German armed forces and to strip them of all of their munitions factories, along with any other civilian-led industries that had a link to supporting their troops during the war.

This elaborate and comprehensive plan also included the total destruction of the ships involved in their navy and their aircraft and aircraft manufacturing plants and capabilities. The US also placed heavy restrictions on any and all types of civilian industries that could even possibly support the German armed forces, to keep the German military and economy at bay.

The Allies stripped down German industry and manufacturing to what they referred to as “approved peacetime needs” which were based on the standard of other European countries. They also reviewed the German industry closely to assess the minimum of factories that Germany would need to stay somewhat economically sufficient.

 

Industry Plans for Germany After World War II

The Allied powers signed the first level of industry plan back in late March of 1946. This plan would execute lowering Germany’s manufacturing and industrial capabilities by 50%, from what it was before the war. To do this, the allies mandated the destruction of 1,500 German manufacturing facilities.

The Allied Control Council put a stringent cap that limited German steel production down to 25% of what they were before the war broke out. Since this had a direct impact on the entire steel production capabilities of the UK, they argued to let Germany keep their steel production higher, but the US, Soviet Union, and France didn’t budge on this issue. They had set a strict limit to 3 million tons of steel production per year.

With the limitations that were placed on Germany after the war, this brought their economy back to the state that they had been at the worst of the Great Depression. The allies set out to cripple or limit the German economy as much as necessary, without providing a hindrance to the survival and standard of living to the German people.

William Henry Draper Jr. led the charge on analyzing these restrictions as to make sure that the new German industry and economy could support a population of 66.5 million. To do that, he laid out that the nation needed to be dependent on large imports of raw materials and food from other countries, so that the German people could be fed and take care of their minimal standards of living.

This also required Germany to shift economic terms, and instead of thriving on an economy fueled by war exports, these mandates made restrictions on the goods that Germany would export. It led them to being restricted to exporting electrical gear, coke, leather goods, coal, wines, spirits, beer, textiles, clothing and apparel, toys, and musical instruments.

 

The Results of the Morgenthau Plan

By 1946, the allies came to find that their implementations from the Morgenthau Plan were strict, and throttling the German people and their economy. With the allies taking notice of the undue hardships that this was placing on their country, they changed their stipulations to allow for some German economic expansion.

One of the primary reasons it is thought that the US changed their restrictions on Germany is because Germany was footing the bill for a significant piece of the occupation costs, of their country. Though, the limitations on the German economy inevitably left the allies relying on their own exports and funding to continue their occupation of Germany and prevent mass starvation during their post-war occupation.

The war and the end of the war took a massive role on the entire European economy. Prior to the war much of Europe was growing because of the booming growth of the German economy.

In 1947, President Harry Truman began to realize that the restrictions that the allies had placed on the German economy were far too strict, and the ramifications of that were crippling the entire European economy. Though he faced resistance to make changes to their original economic regulations, President Truman replaced their previous holds with JCS 1779, which addressed that the economic growth and stability of Europe as a whole was heavily reliant on the success of the German Economy. In accordance, he raised the bar on their regulations by allowing Germany to produce double the amount of steel that they were producing, though that limit was still only 50% of Germany’s pre-war steel production capacity.

 

Great Britain

Great Britain and the UK reaped the benefits of taking many German patents, intellectual property, and pieces of technology. They took German technicians and scientists captive after the war, threatening to keep them as prisoners if they did not reveal their trade secrets.

 

France

The US permitted France to expand their borders of the Saarland, which gave them access to German coal as a means to stimulate the post-war french economy.

By 1949, the Germans felt that they had suffered enough and called for an end. They felt that they had paid their dues and were fed up with the tug of war the allies were playing with them in encouraging economic expansion, while tearing down and limiting their production of factories and raw goods in which would help the economy. France was in support of the dismantling of Germany to continue.

 

The Post War Soviet Union

The reparations to the Soviet Union after the war included the shipments of dismantled German industrial equipment. From The end of March of 1946 to August of 1947, the Soviet Union had taken in 11,100 tons of German equipment.

In return, the Soviet Union was to ship food and wood to the western zones of Germany to aid in their survival and economic stability. However, the Soviet Union fell short on their end of the bargain, and in response the US but a temporary hold on the shipments of German industrial materials to the Soviet Union.

 

United States

The United States government set out with some very specific goals after the end of the war. Much of their strategy had to do with supporting their allies while making sure that justice was brought to the Axis.

The Allies in the west became concerned of the economic deterioration and fallout in the Trizone ––– the zones in Germany occupied by the Americans, British, and French after the war ––– after the war had ended. The US outlined the Marshall Plan which provided for financial aid to Europe, extending through Western Germany. This, along with a currency reform that they implemented in 1948 would help curb rampant inflation and provide some financial stability in the region.

The United States made it a priority to seize the patents and scientific technology that was being developed in Germany at the time. It is estimated that the US alone took around $10 billion in the form of German intellectual property. Most of this was split between the US and the UK.

 

The End of the Dismantling of Germany

Dismantling of the West German economy and their industry officially ended in 1951, but some restrictions stayed in play until the Allied occupation of West Germany came to an end in May of 1955.

Post-War Plan of the World War II Allied Powers

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allied_plans_for_German_industry_after_World_War_II

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History of Father’s Day

History of Father's Day

Father’s Day is a special day of the year that we celebrate fathers around the world. Even though this is a holiday that we celebrate every year, there are few people who really know the historical challenge that it was for Father’s Day to get established as an official holiday.

Who began celebrating Father’s Day and how was Father’s Day started? Here is a history of Father’s Day.

 

The Early History of Father’s Day

Did you know that the idea of Father’s Day has been around since the Middle Ages?

The earliest recorded date that we have for celebrating Father’s day goes back to March 19, 1508. Father’s Day was originally celebrated in the Catholic church in Europe, and was dedicated to celebrating the bond between fathers and their children. It was celebrated on March 19th which is on the same day as the day that Catholics would feast in the honor of Saint Joseph, the Father of Christ.

 

The US and Father’s Day

Father’s Day was actually not celebrated in the United States, outside of the Catholic church, until the early 1900s. It started to get support from individuals in the early 1900s who wanted a day to complement Mother’s Day. A day that was special for celebrating fathers in the US and around the world.

The first Father’s Day took place on July 5th in Fairmont, West Virginia. The observance of Father’s Day was held in the Central United Methodist Church in town. Grace Clayton, one of the members of the church, was mourning the recent loss of her father, who was one of 361 men killed in a mining disaster in a nearby town. 250 of those men had children, leaving behind fatherless families in the wake of this tragic and unexpected accident.

Grace took it upon her to ask pastor Robert Webb to take a moment during his service to honor these fathers that had been killed in this awful event. Due to the local nature of this memorial, this commemoration was not held anywhere outside of the town of Fairmont and wasn’t promoted anywhere else. This also remained a relatively quiet memorial due to the fact that it was overshadowed by the celebration of Independence day the day prior, and also the headlines the following days in which a 16-year-old girl passed on July 4th.

With so much going on during the time of the church’s commemoration for the fallen fathers, this local church in West Virginia didn’t formalize this event for their annual calendar, and as such wasn’t revisited for years later.

 

Failed Attempts at Father’s Day

Jane Addams, an Illinois local, proposed a citywide celebration of Father’s Day in Chicago back in 1911, but the city turned her down. Portland, Oregon also tried to establish and celebrate Father’s Day that same year but had failed.

Just a year later, J.J. Berringer pastor of the Irvington United Methodist Church in Vancouver, Washington led the charge on celebrating Father’s Day. In 1915, Harry Meek believed that he had been the originator of Father’s Day, and chose to celebrate it on his birthday which happened to be the third Sunday in June.

 

Establishing Father’s Day

It wasn’t until Sonora Smart Dodd of Spokane, Washington started promoting Father’s Day that the holiday was actually able to get some traction on a national level. Her father was a civil war Veteran that raised six children on his own. She had actually proposed the idea for the first Father’s Day celebration back in June of 1910 as a way to commemorate her father and the love that he had for his family.

They held their first Father’s Day in the YMCA in Spokane on June 19, 1910, but Dodd was not able to keep up the momentum. In the 1920s she was attending art school in Chicago. However, when she returned to Spokane in the 1930s, she started promoting Father’s Day on a national level.

What was so brilliant about the way that she went about promoting it is that she partnered with the businesses and trade groups that would benefit the most in celebrating fathers around the country. She worked with companies and associations that manufactured gifts that were commonly given to fathers, including tobacco and pipe makers and companies that manufactured neckties.

In 1938, she had garnered the support of the Father’s Day Council, which was founded the New York Association of Men’s Wear Retailer’s as a way to unify, consolidate, and systematize promotions that they would run for Father’s Day. Even then, many Americans resisted the establishment of Father’s Day, viewing it as another way for companies to capitalize on sales, as they had done historically with the celebration of Mother’s Day. It wasn’t until 1972 that Richard Nixon signed off on making Father’s Day a permanent, national holiday.

So a very Happy Father’s Day out there to all you Dads – Enjoy!

My daughter and I in St. Petersburg, Russia (October 2017) in front of the Winter Palace, now the Hermitage Museum. Every day with her is Father’s Day!

 

https://www.history.com/topics/holidays/fathers-day

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